Alpen Steel | Renewable Energy

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A
Ampere
Accumulator
Secondary Battery
Activated Stand Life
The period of time, at a specified temperature, that a cell can be stored in the charged condition before its capacity falls below a specified level.
Activation
The process of making a reserve cell functional, either by introducing an electrolyte, by immersing the cell into an electrolyte, or by other means.
Active Cell
A cell containing all components and in a charged state ready for discharge.
Active material
The material in the electrodes of a cell or battery that takes part in the electrochemical reactions of charge or discharge.
Ah
Ampere-hour
Ampere (Amp) back to top page
Unit of electrical current. Abbreviated "A".
Ampere-hour back to top page
Unit of electrical energy, one amp of current flowing for one hour. Abbreviated Ah.
Ampere-hour Capacity
The quantity electricity measured in ampere - hours (Ah), which may be delivered by a cell or battery under specified condition.
Ampere-hour Efficiency
The ratio of the output of a secondary cell or battery, measured in ampere - hours (Ah), to the input required to restore the initial state of charge, under conditions (also columbic efficiency).
Anion
Particles in the electrolyte carrying a negative charge and moving toward the anode during operation of the cell.
Anode back to top page
The electrode in an electrochemical cell where oxidation takes places. During discharge, the negative electrode of the cell is the anode. During charge, the situation reverses and the positive electrode of the cell is the anode.
Automotive post
A battery terminal style found on starting batteries in internal-combustion vehicles. A round post made of lead.
Battery back to top page
Two or more electrochemical cells electrically interconnected in an appropriate series / parallel arrangement to provide the required operating voltage and current levels. Under common usage, the term "battery" is often also applied to a single cell.
C20, C6, C1, etc back to top page
An expression-describing rate of discharge. The number indicates the number of hours to completely discharge the battery at a constant current. So C/20 is the current draw at which the battery will last for 20 hours, C/1 is the current at which the battery will last 1 hour. The useful capacity of a battery changes depending on the discharge rate, so battery capacities are stated with respect to a particular rate.
CCA
Cold Cranking Amperes
C Rate
The discharge or charge current, in amperes, expressed as a multiple of the rated capacity in ampere - hours.
Capacity back to top page
The total number of ampere-hours or watt-hours that can be withdrawn from a fully charged cell or battery under specified conditions of discharge.
Capacity Retention
The fraction of the full capacity available from a battery under specified conditions of discharge after it has been stored for a period of time.
Cathode back to top page
The electrode in an electrochemical cell where reduction takes places. During discharge, the positive electrode of the cell is the cathode. During charge, the situation reverses, and the negative electrode of the cell is the cathode.
Cation
Particle in the electrolyte carrying a positive charge and moving toward the cathode during operation of the cell.
Cell back to top page
The basic electrochemical unit used to generate or store electrical energy.
Charge back to top page
The conversion of electrical energy, provided in the form of a current from an external source, into chemical energy within a cell or battery.
Charge Acceptance
Willingness of a battery or cell to accept charge. May be affected by cell temperature, charge rate and state of charge.
Charge Control
Techniques for effectively terminating the charging of a rechargeable battery.
Charge Rate
The current applied to a secondary cell or battery to restore its capacity. This rate is commonly expressed as a multiple of the rated capacity of the cell or battery.
Closed - Circuit Voltage (CCV)
The potential or voltage of a cell or battery when it is discharging.
Constant Current Charge
A method of charging the battery using a current having little variation.
Constant Voltage Charge
A method of charging the battery by applying a fixed voltage and allowing variations in the current.
Current Density
The current per unit active area of the surface of an electrode.
Cutoff Voltage back to top page
The cell or battery voltage at which the discharge is terminated. Also called end voltage.
CCA (Cold Cranking Amperes) back to top page
A rating used to describe how much current the battery can deliver to the starter motor for a specified time. The Battery Council International (BCI) defines CCA as "The discharged load in amperes which a new fully charged battery at 0 ºF can deliver for 30 seconds and maintain a voltage of 1.2 volts per cell or higher.
Cycle
The discharge and subsequent or preceding charge of a secondary battery such that it is restored to its original conditions.
Cycle Life

The number of cycle under specified conditions that are available from a secondary battery before it fails to meet specified criteria as to performance.

Cycle Service
A duty cycle characterized by frequent and usually deep discharge-charge sequences, such as motive power applications.
Deep Discharge back to top page
The positive and negative plates are formed / charged in acid tank. The charged plates are dried and assembled into the battery casing. Activation of battery takes a place when dilute sulphuric acid is filled, the battery will give instant current and ready to use.
Depth of Discharge (DOD)
The discharge and subsequent or preceding charge of a secondary battery such that it is restored to its original conditions.
Discharge back to top page
The number of cycle under specified conditions that are available from a secondary battery before it fails to meet specified criteria as to performance.
Discharge Rate
The discharge and subsequent or preceding charge of a secondary battery such that it is restored to its original conditions.
Dry Cell
The number of cycle under specified conditions that are available from a secondary battery before it fails to meet specified criteria as to performance.
Dry Charged Battery
A battery in which the electrodes are in a charged state, ready to be activated by the addition of the electrolyte.
Duty Cycle
The operating regime of a cell or battery including factors such as charge and discharge rates, depth of discharge, cycle length, and length of time in the standby mode.
Electrode back to top page
The site, area, or location at which electrochemical processes take place.
Electrode Potential
The voltages developed by single plate either positive or negative. The algebraic difference in voltage of any two electrodes equals the cell voltage.
Electrolyte back to top page
An electrically conductive medium, in which current flow is due to the movement of ions. In a lead-acid battery, the electrolyte is a solution of sulfuric acid. In other batteries, the electrolyte may be very different.
Electromotive Force (emf)
The standard potential of a specified electrochemical action.
Electron
A very small particle of an atom having a negative charge.
Element
The negative and positive electrodes together with the separators of a single cell. It is used almost exclusively in describing lead-acid cells and batteries.
End Voltage
The prescribed voltage at which the discharge (or charge, if end of charge voltage) of a cell or battery may be considered complete (also cutoff voltage).
Electrone
The number of cycle under specified conditions that are available from a secondary battery before it fails to meet specified criteria as to performance.
Element
A battery in which the electrodes are in a charged state, ready to be activated by the addition of the electrolyte.
End Voltage
The operating regime of a cell or battery including factors such as charge and discharge rates, depth of discharge, cycle length, and length of time in the standby mode.
Equilibrium Electrode Potential
The difference in potential between an electrode and an electrolyte when they are in equilibrium for the electrode reaction that determines the electrode potential.
Faraday back to top page
One-gram equivalent weight of matter is chemically altered at each electrode of a cell for each 96,494 international coulombs, or one Faraday, of electricity passed through the electrolyte.
Fast Charge
A rate of charging which returns full capacity to a rechargeable battery, usually within an hour.
Float Charge
A method of maintaining a cell or battery in a charged condition by continuous, long-term constant-voltage charging, at a level sufficient to balance self-discharge.
Flooded cell
A cell design that incorporates an excess amount of electrolyte. The electrolyte is an ordinary liquid solution of acid. Flooded cells are prone to making gas while being charged. Flooded cells must be periodically checked for fluid level and water added as necessary.
Formation
Electrochemical processing of a battery plate or electrode that transforms the active materials into their usable form.
Fuel Cell
A battery where reactants are supplied to the cell from an external source. The most commonly cited example is the hydrogen fuel cell, in which hydrogen and oxygen are combined, producing electric current and water.
Galvanic Cell back to top page
An electrolytic cell that converts chemical energy into electrical energy by electrochemical action.
Gas Recombination
Method of suppressing hydrogen generation by recombining oxygen gas on the negative electrode as the cell approaches full charge.
Gassing
The evolution of gas from one or more of the electrodes in a cell. Gassing commonly result from local action (self-discharge) or from the electrolysis of water in the electrolyte during charging.
Gel Cell
A technique for sealed lead-acid batteries. The electrolyte solution is in a gel form, usually silica gel, instead of plain liquid.
Grid
A framework for a plate or electrode that supports or retains the active materials and acts as a current collector.
Group
An assembly of positive or negative plates that fit into a cell.
Half - Cell back to top page
An electrode (either the anode or cathode) immersed in a suitable electrolyte.
Hydrogen Over voltage
The activation over voltage for hydrogen discharge.
Hydrometer back to top page
A tool for testing the specific gravity of a fluid, such as the electrolyte in a flooded battery. Typically a squeeze-bulb is used to suck up a sample of the fluid, and a float indicates the specific gravity.
Hygrometer
A tool for measuring the humidity of the air. It is not unheard-of for people to say "hygrometer" when they mean "hydrometer".
Immobilized Electrolyte back to top page
A technique for lead-acid batteries. The electrolyte (the acid) is held in place against the plates instead of being a free-flowing liquid. The two most common techniques are gel and glass mat.
Initial (Closed - Circuit) Voltage
The on-load voltage at the beginning of a discharge.
Internal Resistance
The resistance to the flow of an electric current within a cell or battery; the sum of the ionic and electronic resistance of the cell components.
Ion
A particle in solution that can carry a negative or positive charge.
Lead-acid back to top page
A technique for rechargeable batteries. Electrodes of lead oxide and metallic lead are separated by an electrolyte of sulfuric acid.
Life
For rechargeable batteries, the duration of satisfactory performance measured in years (float life) or in the number of charge/discharge cycles (cycle life).
LiON, LiIon
Lithium ion. A technique for rechargeable batteries. Instead of using metallic lithium as the anode, lithium ions are added to a carbon electrode.
Lithium
A light metal, atomic number 3. Used in advanced rechargeable batteries.
Lithium Polymer
A technique for rechargeable batteries. The lithium anode is separated from the cathode by a thin polymer electrolyte.
Load
A term used to indicate the current drain.
Local Action
Chemical reactions within a cell that convert the active materials to a discharged state without supplying energy through the battery terminals (self-discharge).
Maintenance - Free Battery back to top page
A secondary battery that does not require periodic "topping up" to maintain electrolyte volume.
Maximum - power Discharge Current, Imp
Discharge rate at which maximum power is transferred to the external load. Normally this is the discharge rate when the discharge voltage is approximately equal to one-half of E0.
Negative Electrode (Plate) back to top page
The electrode acting as an anode when a cell or battery is discharging. Potential of the electrode is less noble than positive electrode.
Nominal voltage
The characteristic operating voltage or rated voltage of a cell or battery.
NiMH
Nickel Metal Hydride
Nicad
Nickel Cadmium. (Historical note, Nicad is/was a registered trademark, but has effectively passed into the public domain, like aspirin.)
Nickel Cadmium back to top page
"Old" rechargeable battery technology. For many years, rechargeable dry cell meant nickel-cadmium. Recently, newer technologies such as nickel-metal hydride have mostly replaced nicad, since they have better energy characteristics and don't contain toxic cadmium. The battery has a nickel-hydroxide cathode, a cadmium anode, and aqueous potassium hydroxide electrolyte. Saft is a leading manufacturer of nickel-cadmium batteries for EV applications.
Nickel Metal Hydride back to top page
A technique for making rechargeable batteries. NiMH batteries are common in laptop computers and cellular phones. The battery is similar to nickel-cadmium but uses an anode of a metal hydride; a variety of metal alloys are used.
Ohmic Over voltage back to top page
Over voltage cause by the ohmic drop at an electrode-electrolyte interface.
On - Load Voltage
The difference in potential between the terminals of a cell or battery when it is discharging.
Open Circuit Voltage (OCV) back to top page
The difference in potential between the terminals of a cell or voltage when the circuit is open (no-load condition).
Overcharge
The forcing of current through a cell after all the active material has been converted to the charged state. In other words, charging continued after 100% state of charge is achieved.
Over discharge
Discharge past the point where the full capacity of the cell has been obtained.
Over voltage
The potential difference between the equilibrium potential of an electrode and that of the electrode under an imposed polarization current.
Oxygen Recombination
The process by which oxygen generated at the positive plate during charge is reacted at the negative plate.
Parallel back to top page
Term used to describe the interconnection of cells or batteries in which all of the like terminals are connected together. Parallel connections increase the capacity of the resultant battery as follows: Cp = n x Cu where
Cp = the resultant capacity.
n = the number of cells or batteries connected in parallel.
Cu = Capacity of the unconnected cell or battery.
Passivation
The phenomenon by which a metal, although in conditions of thermodynamic-instability, remains indefinitely unattached because of altered surface condition.
Paste
The process by which oxygen generated at the positive plate during charge is reacted at the negative plate.
Pasted Plate
A plate manufactured by coating a grid or support strip with active materials.
Plate
A structure containing active materials held firmly to a grid or conductor.
Polarization
The lowering of the potential of a cell or electrode from its equilibrium value caused by the passage of an electric current.
Positive Electrode (plate)
The electrode acting as a cathode when a cell or battery is discharging. Potential of the electrode is more nobler than the negative electrode.
Primary Cell or Battery
A cell or battery which is not intended to be recharged and is discarded when the cell or battery has delivered all its electrical energy.
Rated Capacity back to top page
The number of ampere-hours a cell or battery can deliver under specific conditions (rate of discharge, end voltage, temperature); usually the manufacturer's rating.
Recombination
A term used in a sealed cell construction for the process whereby internal pressure is relieved by reaction of oxygen with the negative active material.
Reserve Capacity
A performance rating for automobile starting batteries. It is the number of minutes at which the battery can be discharged at 25 Amps and maintain a terminal voltage higher than 1.75 volts per cell, on a new, fully charged battery at 80degrees Fahrenheit (27C).
Reserve Cell
A cell which may be stored in an inactive state and made ready for use by adding electrolyte, another cell component, or in the case of a thermal battery, melting a solidified electrolyte.
Secondary Battery back to top page
A galvanic battery that, after discharge, may be restored to fully charged state by the passage of an electric current through the cell in the opposite direction to that of discharge.
Self Discharge
The loss of useful capacity of a cell or battery due to internal chemical action (local action).
Separator
An ion permeable, electronically nonconductive, spacer or material that prevents electronic contact between electrodes of opposite polarity in the same cell.
Series
The interconnection of cell or batteries in such a manner that the positive terminal of the first is connected to the negative terminal of the second, and so on. Series connections increase the voltage of the resultant battery as follow.
Vs = n x Vu where
Vs = the resultant voltage.
n = the number of cells or batteries connected in series.
Vu = voltage of the unconnected cell or battery
SG
Specific Gravity. A specific gravity of 1.260 is sometimes written as 1260SG, multiplying by 1000 to avoid the use of fractional parts.
Shallow Discharge
A discharge on a battery equaling only a small part of its total capacity.
Shedding
The loss of active material from a plate during cycling.
Shelf Life back to top page
The duration of storage under specified conditions at the end of which a cell or battery still retains the ability to give a specified performance.
Short - Circuit Current
The initial value of the current obtained from a cell of battery in a circuit of negligible resistance.
SLI Battery
Starting, Lighting, and Ignition battery, a battery designed for use in a conventional gasoline automobile. An SLI battery is designed to give a lot of current during starting, but then to be recharged immediately by the car's alternator. Deeply discharging an SLI battery will greatly shorten its life. SLI batteries are sometimes used in electric vehicles, especially for racing, but are generally not considered suitable because of their short cycle life.
Specific Gravity back to top page
The density of a material, expressed as the ratio of the mass of a given volume of the material and the mass of the same volume of water; a specific gravity greater than 1 means heavier than water, less than 1 means lighter than water. The specific gravity of the electrolyte in a battery can be used to measure the state of charge of the battery.
Standby Battery
A battery designed for emergency use in the event of a main power failure.
State - of - Charge (SoC)
The amount of electrical charge in the battery, expressed as a percentage of the difference between the fully charged and fully discharged states.
Stationary Battery
A secondary battery designed for use in a fixed location.
Starved Electrolyte
A technique for "maintenance free" lead-acid batteries. These batteries are less prone to gassing, so they don't require frequent checking and addition of water. "Starved" because the battery contains just enough electrolytes to provide the necessary chemical reaction, as opposed to the older "flooded" arrangement that contains considerably more electrolyte than needed to make the rated amp-hour capacity.
Storage Battery
See Secondary Battery.
Stationary Battery
See Shelf Life.
Sulfation back to top page
Process occurring in lead batteries that have been stored and allowed to self-discharge for extended periods of time. Large crystals of lead sulfate grow that interfere with function of the active materials.
Thermal Runaway back to top page
A condition whereby a cell or battery on charge or discharge will overheat and destroy itself through internal heat generation caused by high overcharge or over discharging current or other abusive condition.
Traction Battery
A secondary battery designed for the propulsion of electric vehicles or electrically operated mobile equipment operating in a deep-cycle regime.
Tubular Plate
A battery plate in which an assembly of tubes with porous material or polymer tubes holds the active materials.
Unactivated Shelf Life back to top page
The period of time, under specified conditions of temperature and environment, that an unactivated or reserve cell or battery can stand before deteriorating below a specified capacity.
VRLA back to top page
Valve-Regulated Lead Acid
Valve Regulated back to top page
A secondary battery designed for the propulsion of electric vehicles or electrically operated mobile equipment operating in a deep-cycle regime.
Vent
A battery plate in which an assembly of tubes with porous material or polymer tubes holds the active materials.
Vented cell
A cell design incorporating a vent mechanism to relieve excessive pressure and expel gases that are generated during the operation of the cell.
Watt (W) back to top page
Unit of electricity, the rate at which work is done. The equation is Watts = Volts x Amps. One watt is equivalent to about 0.00134 horsepower.
Watt-Hour (WH)
Unit of electrical energy, or work. 1 watt expended continuously for 1 hour equals 1 watt-hour
Wet shelf Life
The period of time that cell or battery can stand in the charged or activated condition before deteriorating below a specified capacity.
Working Voltage
The typical voltage or range of voltage of a cell or battery during discharge.
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