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~ Nyamplung, Potensi Baru Biofuel

Alpen Steel | Renewable Energy


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~ Nyamplung, Potensi Baru Biofuel

Sekitar tiga juta bibit tanaman nyamplung yang berpotensi digunakan sebagai sumber energi biofuel akan ditanam di tiga ribu hektar lahan di seluruh Indonesia. Hal itu dikatakan Menteri Kehutanan MS Kaban setelah membuka seminar nasional "Nyamplung, Sumber Energi Biofuel yang Potensial" di Manggala Wanabhakti, Jakarta, Selasa (23/9). "Tanaman ini sudah ditanam di lahan seluas hampir 400 ribu hektar yang tersebar di seluruh Indonesia, seperti di daerah pesisir pantai Ciamis, Cilacap dan Papua," ujar Kaban.

Menurut Kaban, Indonesia memiliki potensi 800 ribu ha lahan yang bisa ditanami nyamplung di wilayah dengan ketinggian 0-200 meter. Tanaman ini dipilih sebagai sumber energi biofuel karena bijinya mengandung rendemen minyak tinggi. Satu kilogram biji kering nyamplung mengandung hampir 74 persen minyak. "Kandungan itu lebih besar 2 kali lipat dari biji jarak dan bahkan semua tanaman penghasil bahan bakar nabati lainnya," kata Kaban. Saat ini Departemen Kehutanan sedang melakukan riset terkait pembudidayaan tanaman dengan nama ilmiah Calophyllum inophyllum L tersebut. "Dephut mendapat amanat untuk berperan dalam penyediaan bahan baku dan ijin pemanfaatan lahan untuk pengembangannya," katanya.

Langkah tersebut sebagai bagian dari kebijakan energi nasional yang menargetkan tahun 2025 Bahan Bakar Nabati (BBN) memenuhi 5 persen dari kebutuhan energi nasional. Biofuel Nyamplung alias kosambi biasa tumbuh di tepi sungai atau pantai yang berudara panas dengan ketinggian hingga 200 m dpl (dari permukaan laut). Ciri-ciri pohon nyamplung antara lain batangnya berkayu, bulat, warna coklat, daunnya tunggal, bersilang berhadapan, bulat memanjang atau bulat telur. ujung daun tumpul, pangkal membulat, tepinya rata. Daun bertulang menyirip itu panjangnya 10-21 cm, lebar 6-11 cm dengan tangkai 1,5-2,5 cm. Bunga nyamplung biasanya majemuk dan berbentuk tandan. Sementara buahnya bulat seperti peluru, diameter 2,5-3,5 cm, berwarna hijau, dan berubah cokelat jika kering. Biji buah bulat, tebal, keras, berwarna coklat. Pada inti terdapat minyak berwarna kuning. Tinggi pohon nyamplung lebih kurang 20 meter dan berakar tunggang. Setiap pohon nyamplung menghasilkan sekitar 250 kg biji. Jumlah biji yang sudah kering (termasuk kulit) per kilogram mencapai kurang lebih 240 buah. Biji nyamplung ini menghasilkan minyak (biofuel) yang kadar oktannya cukup tinggi.

 

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