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MENINGKATKAN DAYA PADA SISTIM KONVERSI ENERGI GELOMBANG LAUT JENIS CAVITY RESONATOR DENGAN MEMODIFIKASI BENTUK TABUNG SILINDERNYA

Alpen Steel | Renewable Energy


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MENINGKATKAN DAYA PADA SISTIM KONVERSI ENERGI GELOMBANG LAUT JENIS CAVITY RESONATOR DENGAN MEMODIFIKASI BENTUK TABUNG SILINDERNYA

Indonesia sebagai negara maritime, 2/3 wilayahnya terdiri dari laut. Sebagai akibatnya Indonesia memiliki pantai kedua terpanjang didunia setelah Kanada. Panjang pantai Indonesia sekitar 80.000 Km dan luas lautnya adalah sekitar 52 juta Km2.

Diantara laut lautnya memiliki potensi untuk digali energi gelombangnya karena memiliki gelombang laut yang cukup besar, seperti di pantai barat P. Sumatra, pantai selatan Jawa, menerus sampai Kepulauan Nusa Tenggara Timur, di perairan laut Kepulauan Natuna dan di laut di wilayah Indonesia Bagian Timur.

Menurut Wahyuti (2000) potensi energi gelombang laut di Indonesia sekitar 20 - 70 kw/ m muka gelombang. Namun sayang potensi yang besar ini tidak diimbangi dengan penelitian-penelitian yang cukup dan dapat dikatakan bahwa penelitian tentang konversi energi gelombang laut di Indonesia sangat sedikit.

Jika dibandingkan dengan sesama negara berkembang seperti India dan Philipina, Indonesia tertinggal dalam penelitian-penelitian tentang konversi energi gelombang laut. Hal ini dapat dijelaskan dengan jumlah makalah-makalah yang diterbitkan di journal-journal International. Untuk mengimbangi hal tersebut, penelitian ini adalah penelitian tentang sistim konversi energi gelombang laut jenis cavity resonator, yang merupakan kelanjutan penelitian terdahulu.

Penelitian ini adalah penelitian eksperimental yang menggunakan benda uji (model uji) yang di uji di tangki gelombang atau flume tank. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk memperoleh besarnya tekanan udara yang keluar dari lubang kecil (orifice ) pada model yang dimodifikasi bentuknya dari model pada penelitian terdahulu.

Untuk mencapai tujuan penelitian telah dibuat model uji yang terbuat dari bahan transparan Plexiglas yang dibentuk sebagai tabung silinder yang berdiameter 40 cm, sedang tingginya 60 cm. Bagian atas tabung silinder berpenutup sedang bagian bawahnya dibiarkan terbuka agar supaya air dapat masuk kedalamnya. Tutup atas dibagian tengahnya diberi lubang kecil (orifice).

Perbedaan penelitian terdahulu dan sekarang adalah bahwa pada penelitiaan ini model diberi bukaan didinding depannya dengan tinggi bukaan yang berbeda-beda. Selanjutnya, model uji dipasang tetap didalam tangki gelombang, namun demikian kedalaman model dalam air dapat dinaikkan dan diturunkan sesuai dengan yang dikehendaki.

Model kemudian dikenahi gelombag air yang digerakkan oleh pembangkit gelombang yang ada diujung tangki. Gerakan air yang bergelombang ini menyebabkan gerakan air didalam model ( berosilasi). Gerakan air di dalam model akan menekan / mengisap udara yang terjebak diatasnya, sehingga timbul tekanan udara yang mendesak keatas / kebawah irtelalui orifice.

Tekanan udara yang keluar melalui orifice menjadi besar, karena diameter orifice sangat kecil jika dibandingkan dengan diameter model. Udara yang keluar dari orifice ini yang kemudian dideteksi dan direkam besarnya tekanan dengan alat pengukur tekanan Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa apabila periode gelombang diperbesar, maka tekanan udara yang terjadi di orifice menjadi besar cukup signifikan yaitu rata-rata sekitar 40 %. Selanjutnya jika tinggi gelombang diperbesar maka tekanan yang terjadi menjadi besar signifikan yaitu rata-rata sekitar 200 %. Sedang perbedaan daya antara model lama dan model modifikasi dayanya meningkat rata-rata sekitar 90 %.

Alt. Description

Indonesia as a maritime country, its territory consists of 2/3 part of ocean waters. As a consequence, the Indonesian coastline is the second largest in the world after the Canadian coastline. The coastline is about 80.000 length and the sea area is 52 million Km2. Some of the seas are potential for extracting its energy due to of big wave.

The seas are along the west coast of Sumatra Island and the south coast of Java up to the cast of Nusa Tenggara archipelago, the Natuna archipelago waters, and in the east of Indonesian waters. Nevertheless, the huge potential of wave energy was not balanced by sufficient of researches on it. Research about wave energy conversion system is very limited. Compared to India and Philippine, Indonesia is poorer in wave energy research.

This indication can be seen from the paper presented in International journals. In order to sufficient the research on wave energy conversion, this research is trying to experiment on wave energy conversion system of Cavity Resonator type by the used of model test. The test was carried out in the flume tank.

The aim of the study is to identify the pressure phenomenon in the orifice of the model lest. In order to achieve the aim of the study, model test of Cavity Resonator have been constructed from thin Plexiglas forming to cylindrical pipe of 40 cm in diameter and 60 cm in height. The pipe is capped of the top and very small hole (orifice) is position in the center of the cap. The bottom is let to open to allow the water passes through in. A lateral opening is occupied on the front wall of the model to differ with the previous research.

The model is then fixed on die platform and the bottom of the tank. Having fixing the model, the wave simulation is then run. The water wave then passing through the model causes a resonate of the water column in the model. The moving of water column will press the air trapped in the top and causes a high air pressure come out from the orifice. The pressure from the orifice is detected and record and analyzed.

The result of study is concluded by highlight 'finding such as; the increasing of wave period will increase moderately the pressure in the orifice, about 40%. The increasing of wave height causes a significant increasing of the pressure; about 200%. While the difference of energy between the previous model and the modified model shows that the energy increases significantly about 90%.

Created by Arief Suroso
 

 

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