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Gelombang Laut, Energi Tiada Henti

Alpen Steel | Renewable Energy


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Gelombang Laut, Energi Tiada Henti

 




Gelombang yang selama ini dijadikan tunggangan para peselancar, kini bisa menjadi sumber energi tiada henti. Energi gelombang ini dapat dimanfaatkan untuk mensuplai kebutuhan energi seuatu kota pelabuhan misalnya. Para peneliti memperkirakan, hanya dengan memanfaatkan 0,2 per sen energi gelombang laut dapat menyalakan semua bola lampu di seluruh dunia. Luar biasa bukan? :)

Para Insinyur di Oregon State University telah mengambil langkah awal pemanfaatan energi gelombang ini. Mereka telah membuat semacam sistem pelampung pembangkit energi yang menangkap energi gelombang laut dan mengubahnya menjadi listrik. Sistem ini ditempatkan sejauh 2 mil dari bibir pantai ke tengah laut dan disebut pelampung generator linear magnet permanen (permanent magnet linear generator buoy).

Berbeda dengan generator umumnya yang menghasilkan listrik akibat gerakan berputar, generator linear magnet permanen menghasilkan listrik dari gerakan bolak-balik akibat naik-turunnya pelampung oleh gelombang laut. Di dalam pelampung, lilitan (coil) kawat dipasang mengelilingi batang magnet yang dipancangkan ke dasar laut. Coil dipasang meyatu dengan pelampung sehingga akan naik dan turun sesuai pergerakan pelampung akibat gelombang laut. Gerakan bolak-balik ini memotong fluks magnet sehingga menghasilkan listrik.

Setiap pelampung memiliki potensi pembangkitan sebesar 250 kW, namun dapat diperbesar atau diperkecil sesuai kebutuhan dan skala teknologi yang digunakan. Para peneliti memperkirakan, cukup dibutuhkan 200 pelampung untuk mencukupi kebutuhan listrik suatu kota pelabuhan.

Namun, bagaimanapun juga, pengembangan teknologi pembangkitan gelombang masih tertinggal 10 sampai 20 tahun dibelakang pengembangan teknologi pembangkitan energi terbarukan lainnya seperti angin dan surya.

sumber: LiveScience.
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