~ Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells

Crystalline silicon solar cells

Historically, crystalline silicon (c-Si) has been used as the light-absorbing semiconductor in most solar cells, even though it is a relatively poor absorber of light and requires a considerable thickness (several hundred microns) of material. Nevertheless, it has proved convenient because it yields stable solar cells with good efficiencies (11-16%, half to two-thirds of the theoretical maximum) and uses process technology developed from the huge knowledge base of the microelectronics industry.

Two types of crystalline silicon are used in the industry. The first is monocrystalline, produced by slicing wafers (up to 150mm diameter and 350 microns thick) from a high-purity single crystal boule. The second is multicrystalline silicon, made by sawing a cast block of silicon first into bars and then wafers. The main trend in crystalline silicon cell manufacture is toward multicrystalline technology.

For both mono- and multicrystalline Si, a semiconductor homojunction is formed by diffusing phosphorus (an n-type dopant) into the top surface of the boron doped (p-type) Si wafer. Screen-printed contacts are applied to the front and rear of the cell, with the front contact pattern specially designed to allow maximum light exposure of the Si material with minimum electrical (resistive) losses in the cell.

The most efficient production cells use monocrystalline c-Si with laser grooved, buried grid contacts for maximum light absorption and current collection.

Some companies are productionizing technologies that by-pass some of the inefficiencies of the crystal growth/casting and wafer sawing route. One route is to grow a ribbon of silicon, either as a plain two-dimensional strip or as an octagonal column, by pulling it from a silicon melt.

Another is to melt silicon powder on a cheap conducting substrate. These processes may bring with them other issues of lower growth/pulling rates and poorer uniformity and surface roughness. 

Each c-Si cell generates about 0.5V, so 36 cells are usually soldered together in series to produce a module with an output to charge a 12V battery. The cells are hermetically sealed under toughened, high transmission glass to produce highly reliable, weather resistant modules that may be warrantied for up to 25 years. 

Modules are designed to meet rigorous certification tests set by international standards agencies. for more details on PV module certification.


Solar cells usually operate more efficiently under concentrated light. This has led to the development of a range of approaches using mirrors or lenses to focus light on to specially designed cells and use heat sinks, or active cooling of the cells, to dissipate the large amount of heat that is generated.  Unlike conventional flat plate PV arrays, concentrator systems require direct sunlight (clear skies) and will not operate under cloudy conditions. They generally follow the sun's path through the sky during the day using single-axis tracking.  To adjust to the sun's varying height in the sky through the seasons, two-axis tracking is sometimes used.

Concentrators have not yet achieved widespread application in photovoltaics, but solar concentration has been widely used in solar thermal electricity generation technology where the generated heat is used to power a turbine.


Unlike the crystalline and thin film solar cells that have solid-state light absorbing layers, electrochemical solar cells have their active component in a liquid phase. They use a dye sensitizer to absorb the light and create electron-hole pairs in a nanocrystalline titanium dioxide semiconductor layer. This is sandwiched in between a tin oxide coated glass sheet (the front contact of the cell) and a rear carbon contact layer, with a glass or foil backing sheet.

Some consider that these cells will offer lower manufacturing costs in the future because of their simplicity and use of cheap materials. The challenges of scaling up manufacturing and demonstrating reliable field operation of products lie ahead. However, prototypes of small devices powered by dye-sensitised nanocrystalline electrochemical PV cells are now appearing (120cm2 cells with an efficiency of 7%).

Developing Technologies: Concentrators

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